In an interesting case of science fiction becoming a reality, NASA has been testing their SPHERES project over the past few years. The SPHERES project (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) involves spherical satellites about the size of a bowling ball. Used inside the International Space Station, the satellites are used to test autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Each individual satellite features its own power, propulsion, computers and navigational support systems.
The SPHERES project is the brainchild of David Miller (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Miller was inspired by the floating remote “droid” that Luke Skywalker used to help hone his lightsaber skills in Star Wars. Since 2006, a set of five SPHERES satellites, built by Miller and his students have been onboard the International Space Station.
Since lightsabers are most likely prohibited onboard the ISS, what practical use have these “droids” been to space station crews?
The first SPHERES satellite was tested during Expedition 8 and Expedition 13, with a second unit delivered to the ISS by STS-121, and a third delivered by STS-116. The crew of ISS Expedition 14 tested a configuration using three of the SPHERES satellites. Since their arrival, over 25 experiments have been performed using SPHERES. Until recently, the tests used pre-programmed algorithms to perform specific functions.
“The space station is just the first step to using remotely controlled robots to support human exploration,” said Chris Moore, program executive in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Building on our experience in controlling robots on station, one day we’ll be able to apply what we’ve learned and have humans and robots working together everywhere from Earth orbit, to the Moon, asteroids, and Mars.”